Air Pollution In The 21st Century

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Author: T. Schneider
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080544908
Size: 21.32 MB
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Air Pollution In The 21st Century by T. Schneider


Original Title: Air Pollution In The 21st Century

This symposium was jointly organized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and The Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. These proceedings will provide a stimulus for taking up the challenges of environmental policy development in the 21st century, and will contribute to continuing co-operation. Clean air is a basic condition for health. Air pollution aggravates respiratory problems, leading to increased sickness absenteeism, increased use of health care services and even premature mortality. Air pollution is under intensive discussion in the United States and Europe. In The Netherlands, a wide range of policy instruments have been formulated which have reduced air pollution. For example; since 1975, sulphur dioxide and lead emissions have been reduced. However, emission reduction figures for many other substances are more modest. Many air pollution problems persist because progress in countering these problems is nullified by growth in the economy and traffic. Another important target is the prevention of climate change. The international community is agreed that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to a gradual increase in the earth's temperature. In terms of the environmental consequences and social implications, the greenhouse problem surpasses all other air quality problems. Across Europe, strategies are being developed to reduce acidification and photochemical air pollution. An air emission ceiling for each country in the European Union is being agreed. In the area of climate change, there is good co-operation between the United States, The Netherlands and other EU Members States in the ongoing global negotiations. This is the start of a new movement. In the last century economies and societies developed through increasing human productivity. In the next century they must develop through increasing the productivity of fuel and natural resources.

Air Pollution Science For The 21st Century

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Author: J. Austin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080526904
Size: 53.82 MB
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Air Pollution Science For The 21st Century by J. Austin


Original Title: Air Pollution Science For The 21st Century

Acid rain, photochemistry, long-range transport of pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols have dominated tropospheric air pollution for the last 30 years of the 20th century. At the start of the 21st century, acid rain is subject to planned improvement in Europe and North America, but is still a growing problem in Asia. Tropospheric ozone is understood much better, but the problem is still with us, and desirable levels are difficult to achieve over continental Europe. The heterogeneous chemistry that is responsible for ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now reasonably clear, but there is on-going interest in the sources and sinks of CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements in the troposphere. There is also increasing interest in indoor air quality, and the origin and health implications of atmospheric particles. Perhaps most important on a global perspective, intensive research has not yet determined the relationship between greenhouse gases, aerosols and surface temperature. The climactic implications of these are now more urgent than ever. This book, the first in the Developments in Environmental Science series, consists of a collection of authoritative reviews and essays on the science and application of air pollution research at the start of this new century.

Environmental Health In The 21st Century From Air Pollution To Zoonotic Diseases 2 Volumes

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Author: Richard Crume
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440843651
Size: 78.28 MB
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Environmental Health In The 21st Century From Air Pollution To Zoonotic Diseases 2 Volumes by Richard Crume


Original Title: Environmental Health In The 21st Century From Air Pollution To Zoonotic Diseases 2 Volumes

This concisely written and easy-to-read resource provides timely information on emerging issues and valuable historical context that enables students to better understand a broad range of environmental health topics, from pollution to infectious diseases, natural disasters, and waste management. • Supplies introductory materials that provide a conceptual framework for readers • Includes contributions from more than 50 expert researchers and practitioners as well as information from interviews with leaders in the environmental health field • Presents historical context for current developments concerning environmental health • Offers suggestions on steps individuals can take to reduce their environmental health risk and stay healthy

Forest Growth Responses To The Pollution Climate Of The 21st Century

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Author: Lucy J. Sheppard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401715785
Size: 56.41 MB
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Forest Growth Responses To The Pollution Climate Of The 21st Century by Lucy J. Sheppard


Original Title: Forest Growth Responses To The Pollution Climate Of The 21st Century

This Special Issue of Water, Air and Soil Pollution offers contributions from the th 18 IUFRO workshop on Air Pollution Stress, Forest Responses to the Pollution st Climate of the 21 Century held in Edinburgh, Scotland, from September 21 to 23,1998. The meeting was held under the auspices of IUFRO, Research Group 7.04.00 chaired by Dr Kevin Percy of Canada. A new session structure was adopted to stimulate activity within the six working parties and a brief resume of these is presented at the front of this volume. The two, one-day plenary sessions were devoted to the two important air pollution issues, nitrogen deposition and ozone. Invited papers were augmented by a large and excellent contribution of poster papers. The final day comprised parallel Working Party Sessions with pre arranged speakers to stimulate discussions. One hundred and thirty one scientists attended, representing 20 countries and 7 IUFRO regions: Northern Europe, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Mediterranean, North America, Asia and the Western Pacific. Lucy Sheppard David Fowler Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 116: 1, 1999.

Major Environmental Issues Facing The 21st Century

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Author: Mary K. Theodore
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 74.78 MB
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Major Environmental Issues Facing The 21st Century by Mary K. Theodore


Original Title: Major Environmental Issues Facing The 21st Century

This work, intended for informed, non-technical readers, provides an objective overview of important environmental issues. The book starts with the traditional topics of air, land and water pollution, but also presents newer issues, including solid waste management, the greenhouse effect, electromagnetic fields and questions of environmental equity. The authors also focus on how to prevent the pollution in the first place, rather than on simply cleaning it up afterwards.

America In The 21st Century

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Author: Richard Magder
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 59.42 MB
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America In The 21st Century by Richard Magder


Original Title: America In The 21st Century

This report focuses on the "people" dimension of 5 pressing environmental issues: 1) air pollution, 2) the quality and availability of water, 3) solid waste management, 4) the disposal of hazardous waste, and 5) the threat of global warming, the greenhouse effect. In general, as more people inhabit a given tract of land, environmental stress usually increases: more cars create more air pollution, more consumers generate more trash, and more home owners urbanize more land. Population density in the US is low by world standards, but a large part of the US population is located in areas that are now under environmental stress. Policies to protect the environment will affect jobs in many sectors of the economy. Outmoded plants and factories that are major sources of air pollution or toxic materials are sometimes shut down rather than redesigned to meet more stringent environmental standards. 1 of the more difficult costs of environmental degradation to measure is its effects on people's health and life span. Although major strides have been made in improving air quality since the passage of the 1970 Clean Air Act, air pollution remains a serious problem for much of the nation. Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of air pollution. Although the US currently has abundant water resources relative to its population, the country is facing serious problems with both the supply and distribution of its water supply. The US currently produces more than 11 billion tons of solid waste annually. The US also generates some 700,000 tons of hazardous waste every day. Environmental problems do not stop at state or national borders as the effects of acid rain and the spread of radiation into Western Europe after the Chernobyl nuclear accident demonstrated. Global warming may be the most serious worldwide threat to the environment. How the nation responds to environmental threats will significantly affect life in the 21st century. Active responses require adjustments in how we produce and consume goods and services, the nature of jobs, where we work and live, and what kinds of personal life styles we lead. Effective action requires a firm understanding of demographic trends.

Air Pollution Global Change And Forests In The New Millennium

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Author: D.F. Karnosky
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080526911
Size: 69.33 MB
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Air Pollution Global Change And Forests In The New Millennium by D.F. Karnosky


Original Title: Air Pollution Global Change And Forests In The New Millennium

The chapters in this book present a snapshot of the state of knowledge of air pollution effects at the beginning of the 21st century. From their different disciplines, a distinguished collection of authors document their understanding of how leaves, trees, and forests respond to air pollutants and climate change. Scenarios of global change and air pollution are described. The authors describe responses of forests to climate variability, tropospheric ozone, rising atmospheric CO2, the combination of CO2 and ozone, and deposition of acidic compounds and heavy metals. The responses to ozone receive particular attention because of increasing concern about its damaging effects and increasing concentrations in rural areas. Scaling issues are addressed - from leaves to trees, from juvenile trees to mature trees, from short-term responses to long-term responses, and from small-scale experiments and observations to large-scale forest ecosystems. This book is one major product of a conference sponsored by the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations, the USDA Forest Service Global Change Northern Stations Program, the Arthur Ross Foundation, NCASI, the Canadian Forest Service, and Michigan Technological University. The conference, held in May 2000 in Houghton, Michigan, USA, was appropriately titled "Air Pollution, Global Change, and Forests in the New Millennium". The Editors, David Karnosky, Kevin Percy, Art Chappelka, Caroline Simpson, and Janet Pikkarainen organized the conference and edited this book.

The Role Of Global Air Pollution In Aging And Disease

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Author: Caleb E. Finch
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128131039
Size: 22.25 MB
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The Role Of Global Air Pollution In Aging And Disease by Caleb E. Finch


Original Title: The Role Of Global Air Pollution In Aging And Disease

Global Air Pollution in Aging: Reading Smoke Signals is a complete reference connecting environmental pollution research to the human aging process. Since 1800, lifespans have more than doubled as infections declined and medicine improved. But the 20th century introduced a new global scourge of air pollution from fossil fuels with the potential to damage arteries, hearts and lungs that has been related to chronic exposure of air pollution from fossil fuels. Risk areas of study include childhood obesity, brain damage associated with air pollution, increased risk for autism in children and dementia in older adults. In humans and animals, air pollution stimulates chronic inflammation in different organs, and genetic vulnerability to air pollution is being recognized, particularly for carriers of the Alzheimer risk gene ApoE4. Connects environmental pollution research to the human aging process Raises new issues relevant to the controversies on air pollution and global warming, challenging assumptions that lifespan will continue to increase in the 21st Century Examines the burden of air pollution to disadvantaged populations, with anticipated greater impact in developing countries which rely on fossil fuels for economic development in future decades

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