Ancient Lakes

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Author: A. Rossiter
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780120139316
Size: 39.17 MB
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Ancient Lakes by A. Rossiter


Original Title: Ancient Lakes

Scattered over several continents, the ancient lakes of the world have a unique uninterrupted history dating back beyond 100,000 years. Ancient lakes are, in effect, aquatic islands in which a complex of ecology, genetics and evolutionary constraints have shaped in isolation their biotas over hundreds of thousands to millions of years. The diverse faunas achieve some of the highest levels of diversity known to any habitat, offering unique opportunities as 'natural laboratories' for studying the mechanisms of evolution and speciation in situ. This internationally authored volume contains the latest research results and theories to emerge from a diverse range of studies in these lakes. Containing exciting new findings in the ecology, evolution and systematic studies of ancient lake biotas together with many suggested areas for future research, it will be essential reading for all those with a general interest in ecology, evolution and natural history. In this volume expert scientists present the latest results and perspectives from their research on the organisms of the ancient lakes. Diverse in its taxonomic coverage and themes, and international in its authorship and coverage, Ancient Lakes will appeal to all biologists interested in evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Key Features * Ancient lakes are increasingly recognised as important models of evolution and speciation * This volume presents a diverse range of exciting new hypotheses and perspectives on ancient lake biotas * Information is included on Russian and Chinese faunas, available in English here for the first time

Advances In Ecological Research

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Author: A. Rossiter
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780120139316
Size: 69.40 MB
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Advances In Ecological Research by A. Rossiter


Original Title: Advances In Ecological Research

Scattered over several continents, the ancient lakes of the world have a unique uninterrupted history dating back beyond 100,000 years. Ancient lakes are, in effect, aquatic islands in which a complex of ecology, genetics and evolutionary constraints have shaped in isolation their biotas over hundreds of thousands to millions of years. The diverse faunas achieve some of the highest levels of diversity known to any habitat, offering unique opportunities as 'natural laboratories' for studying the mechanisms of evolution and speciation in situ. This internationally authored volume contains the latest research results and theories to emerge from a diverse range of studies in these lakes. Containing exciting new findings in the ecology, evolution and systematic studies of ancient lake biotas together with many suggested areas for future research, it will be essential reading for all those with a general interest in ecology, evolution and natural history. In this volume expert scientists present the latest results and perspectives from their research on the organisms of the ancient lakes. Diverse in its taxonomic coverage and themes, and international in its authorship and coverage, Ancient Lakes will appeal to all biologists interested in evolution, ecology and biodiversity. Key Features * Ancient lakes are increasingly recognised as important models of evolution and speciation * This volume presents a diverse range of exciting new hypotheses and perspectives on ancient lake biotas * Information is included on Russian and Chinese faunas, available in English here for the first time

Patterns And Processes Of Speciation In Ancient Lakes

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Author: Thomas Wilke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402095821
Size: 22.84 MB
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Patterns And Processes Of Speciation In Ancient Lakes by Thomas Wilke


Original Title: Patterns And Processes Of Speciation In Ancient Lakes

Ancient lakes are exceptional freshwater environments that have continued to exist for hundreds of thousands of years. They have long been recognized as centres of biodiversity and hotspots of evolution. During recent decades, speciation in ancient lakes has emerged as an important and exciting topic in evolutionary biology. The contributions in this volume deal with patterns and processes of biological diversification in three prominent ancient lake systems. Of these, the famous East African Great Lakes already have a strong tradition of evolutionary studies, but the two other systems have so far received much less attention. The exceptional biodiversity of the European sister lakes Ohrid and Prespa of the Balkans has long been known, but has largely been neglected in the international literature until recently. The rich biota and problems of its evolution in the two central lake systems on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in turn, have only lately started to draw scientific attention. This volume aims at deepening the awareness of the unusual biological diversity in ancient lakes in general, and of the role of these lakes as natural laboratories for the study of speciation and diversification in particular. It should stimulate further research that will lead to a better understanding of key evolutionary processes in these lakes, and to knowledge that might help in mitigating the deterioration of their diversity in the future.

Evolution In Action

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Author: Matthias Glaubrecht
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642124259
Size: 41.69 MB
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Evolution In Action by Matthias Glaubrecht


Original Title: Evolution In Action

Radiations, or Evolution in Action We have just celebrated the “Darwin Year” with the double anniversary of his 200th birthday and 150th year of his masterpiece, “On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection”. In this work, Darwin established the factual evidence of biological evolution, that species change over time, and that new organisms arise by the splitting of ancestral forms into two or more descendant species. However, above all, Darwin provided the mechanisms by arguing convincingly that it is by natural selection – as well as by sexual selection (as he later added) – that organisms adapt to their environment. The many discoveries since then have essentially con?rmed and strengthened Darwin’s central theses, with latest evidence, for example, from molecular genetics, revealing the evolutionary relationships of all life forms through one shared history of descent from a common ancestor. We have also come a long way to progressively understand more on how new species actually originate, i. e. on speciation which remained Darwin’s “mystery of m- teries”, as noted in one of his earliest transmutation notebooks. Since speciation is the underlying mechanism for radiations, it is the ultimate causation for the biological diversity of life that surrounds us.

Lake Biwa Interactions Between Nature And People

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Author: Hiroya Kawanabe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400717830
Size: 33.55 MB
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Lake Biwa Interactions Between Nature And People by Hiroya Kawanabe


Original Title: Lake Biwa Interactions Between Nature And People

This book focuses on the long-term interactions between people and nature in and around Lake Biwa, one of the oldest lakes in the world. Accordingly, it not only covers the characteristics of the biota of this ancient lake, but also approaches it as a ‘cultural ancient lake.’ Furthermore, various problems affecting the lake, especially recent environmental changes that occurred before and after Japan’s rapid economic growth of the 1950s and 60s, are reviewed, including water pollution, lakeshore development and the reclamation of attached lakes, alien and invasive species, and problems related to the recent warming of the climate. Lastly, by analyzing data on these problems collected by the local government and residents of the lake basin, the book provides a comprehensive outlook on the future of Lake Biwa and people’s lifestyles. As such, it provides indispensable information for all people engaged in improving and conserving water regimes around the world, as well as people interested in the culture and history of Japan.

Paleolimnology

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Author: Andrew S. Cohen
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195133536
Size: 22.41 MB
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Paleolimnology by Andrew S. Cohen


Original Title: Paleolimnology

This text, written by a leading researcher in the field, describes the origin and formation of lakes in order to give context to the question of how lacustrine deposits form. It explains the process of sedimentation in lakes and the chemistry of those deposits and describes how the age of lake deposits are determined. Additionally, this book shows how different groups of fossils are used in interpreting the paleontological record of lakes. In order to illustrate the more synthetic approaches to interpreting the history of lakes, the author also discusses such special topics as lake-level history, lake evolution, and the impact of environmental change on lakes.

Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment

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Author: E.V. Balian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402082597
Size: 30.32 MB
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Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment by E.V. Balian


Original Title: Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment

This book offers a comprehensive study of species- and genus-level diversity and chorology of the global freshwater fauna to date. It gives a state of the art assessment of the diversity and distribution of Metazoa in the continental waters of the world.

Fishes And Forestry

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Author: Thomas G. Northcote
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1405147911
Size: 45.31 MB
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Fishes And Forestry by Thomas G. Northcote


Original Title: Fishes And Forestry

Many species of fish occupying inland waters reside in watersheds that were or still are surrounded by forests and are dependent in major ways upon such cover. The interactions between fishes and forests are complex, multifaceted, dynamic processes involving most inland surface waters, forests, subsurface waters, geology and soils, climate and its changes, and the biotic components of the relevant ecosystems. These interactions also include the aspects of forestry tied to human development, economics, population growth and even philosophies. Fishes and Forestry is truly a landmark publication. The editors, Professors Northcote and Hartman, have drawn together and carefully edited chapters written by 56 scientists from around the world, covering a vast wealth of information never before appearing within the covers of one book. Following an introductory chapter, this exceptional work is broadly divided into sections covering: the ecology of forests, streams, lakes and estuaries; fish biology and ecology; forestry activities and their effects on aquatic systems and fishes; 14 chapters covering examples of fish-forestry interactions from around the world and a final section covering means of effecting better fish-forestry interactions. Fishes and Forestry is an essential purchase for all those involved in inland fisheries, forestry and their interaction, including fisheries scientists, fish biologists, ecologists, environmental scientists and forestry scientists. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have several copies on their shelves.

Biodiversity In Aquatic Systems And Environments

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Author: Noboru Okuda
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 4431541500
Size: 49.49 MB
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Biodiversity In Aquatic Systems And Environments by Noboru Okuda


Original Title: Biodiversity In Aquatic Systems And Environments

This book presents the latest topics in ecological and evolutionary research on aquatic biodiversity from bacteria to fishes, with special reference to Lake Biwa, an ancient lake in western Japan. With a geological history of 4 million years, Lake Biwa is the third oldest lake in the world. It is considered a biodiversity hotspot, where 1,769 aquatic species including 61 endemics are recorded, providing a rare opportunity to study the evolutionary diversification of aquatic biota and its ecological consequences. The first chapter introduces the evolutionary history of biodiversity, especially of fish in this lake. In the second chapter, some examples of trophic polymorphism in fish are described. Fish are keystone predators in lake ecosystems, and they can be a major driver for altering biological communities through their top-down trophic cascading effects. An excellent laboratory experiment is presented, demonstrating that functional diversity of fish feeding morphology alters food web properties of plankton prey communities. The third chapter focuses on aquatic microbes, whose abundance and diversity may also be influenced by the diversity of fish through top-down trophic cascades. Aquatic microbes can have a strong impact on ecosystem functioning in lakes, and in this chapter, the latest molecular techniques used to examine genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities are introduced. The final chapter presents theoretical frameworks for predicting how biodiversity has the potential to control the incidence and intensity of human-induced regime shifts. While respecting the precious nature of biodiversity in lakes, it is essential to be aware that modern human activities have brought a crisis of biodiversity loss in lakes worldwide. Throughout this book, readers will learn why biodiversity must be conserved at all levels, from genes to ecosystems.

The Diatoms

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Author: John P. Smol
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139492624
Size: 29.82 MB
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The Diatoms by John P. Smol


Original Title: The Diatoms

This much revised and expanded edition provides a valuable and detailed summary of the many uses of diatoms in a wide range of applications in the environmental and earth sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of diatoms in analysing ecological problems related to climate change, acidification, eutrophication, and other pollution issues. The chapters are divided into sections for easy reference, with separate sections covering indicators in different aquatic environments. A final section explores diatom use in other fields of study such as forensics, oil and gas exploration, nanotechnology, and archaeology. Sixteen new chapters have been added since the first edition, including introductory chapters on diatom biology and the numerical approaches used by diatomists. The extensive glossary has also been expanded and now includes over 1,000 detailed entries, which will help non-specialists to use the book effectively.

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