Archaea

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Author: Paul Blum
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780120026500
Size: 74.76 MB
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Archaea by Paul Blum


Original Title: Archaea

Although they comprise one of the three fundamental branches of life, it was only the last decade that Archaea were formally recognized as a group alongside Eukaryotes and Bacteria. Bacteria-like in that they are single celled organisms that lack a nucleus and intracellular organelles, the Arachaea also share a large gene set typical of eukaryotes, for making and repairing DNA, RNA and protien. More surprisingly, they only inhabit environments typical of the extremes of early earth--hot springs, thermal ocean vents, saline lake, or oxygen deficient sediments. A breakpoint on the common evolutionary path, it is evident that the Archaea diverged early in the history of life, establishing thier importance in evolutionary sciences. Archaea: Ancient Microbes, Extreme Environments, and the Origin of Life tells this evolving story, furthering our understanding of the microbe commonalities, and providing for evolutionary justification in the use of archaea as mechanistic model systems. Provides a unique and current summary of common subcellular mechanisms in archaea and eukaryotes Emphasizes the use of genomics to provide a biological context for understanding archaea Contrasts evolutionary studies on the fossil record with those on molecular phylogeny Includes extensive tables, graphs, images, drawings and other illustrations Simplifies the interdisciplinary challenge necessary to understand the significance of archaea

Enigmatic Microorganisms And Life In Extreme Environments

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Author: Joseph Seckbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402018633
Size: 40.83 MB
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Enigmatic Microorganisms And Life In Extreme Environments by Joseph Seckbach


Original Title: Enigmatic Microorganisms And Life In Extreme Environments

This volume covers the fields of origin, evolution and phylogenesis from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells. The eminent authors, experts in their fields, review the three kingdoms of life (Archea, Eubacteria and Eukarya) from molecular evolutionary levels to ecological aspects in enigmatic habitats, including general reviews of puzzling pro-and eukaryotic organisms and their domains. We discuss dry habitats, thermophilic (cells in hot springs and undersea thermal vents up to 110°C), psychrophilic (cryophiles) and halophilic (high salt concentrations) niches which among the harshest conditions found on Earth where microbial life is frequently detected. Some chapters deal with the organisms which grow in extreme pH conditions (acidity vs. alkalinity), and under hydrostatic pressure in the deep sea, and microbial growth on petroleum. Audience: Students, lecturers and researchers; scholars in the fields of biology, evolutionary biology and chemistry, and other evolutionary fields, and the intelligent layman.

Microbial Mats

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Author: Joseph Seckbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048137992
Size: 70.26 MB
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Microbial Mats by Joseph Seckbach


Original Title: Microbial Mats

This book provides information about microbial mats, from early fossils to modern mats located in marine and terrestrial environments. Microbial mats – layered biofilms containing different types of cells – are most complex systems in which representatives of various groups of organisms are found together. Among them are cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phototrophs, aerobic heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic bacteria, protozoa, anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, and other types of microorganisms. These mats are perfect models for biogeochemical processes, such as the cycles of chemical elements, in which a variety of microorganisms cooperate and interact in complex ways. They are often found under extreme conditions and their study contributes to our understanding of extremophilic life. Moreover, microbial mats are models for Precambrian stromatolites; the study of modern microbial mats may provide information on the processes that may have occurred on Earth when prokaryotic life began to spread.

Life In Ancient Ice

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Author: John D. Castello
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691074757
Size: 61.98 MB
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Life In Ancient Ice by John D. Castello


Original Title: Life In Ancient Ice

Based on a National Science Foundation-sponsored symposium organized by the editors in 2001, it comprises twenty chapters by internationally renowned scientists, including Russian experts whose decades of work has been rarely available in English."--Jacket.

Life In Extreme Environments

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Author: Ricardo Amils Pibernat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402062850
Size: 74.91 MB
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Life In Extreme Environments by Ricardo Amils Pibernat


Original Title: Life In Extreme Environments

This book provides an intriguing look at how life can adapt to many different extreme environments. It addresses the limits for life development and examines different strategies used by organisms to adapt to different extreme environments.

Systems Biology And Ecology Of Microbial Mat Communities

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Author: Martin G. Klotz
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288919793X
Size: 43.24 MB
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Systems Biology And Ecology Of Microbial Mat Communities by Martin G. Klotz


Original Title: Systems Biology And Ecology Of Microbial Mat Communities

Microbial mat communities consist of dense populations of microorganisms embedded in exopolymers and/or biomineralized solid phases, and are often found in mm-cm thick assemblages, which can be stratified due to environmental gradients such as light, oxygen or sulfide. Microbial mat communities are commonly observed under extreme environmental conditions, deriving energy primarily from light and/or reduced chemicals to drive autotrophic fixation of carbon dioxide. Microbial mat ecosystems are regarded as living analogues of primordial systems on Earth, and they often form perennial structures with conspicuous stratifications of microbial populations that can be studied in situ under stable conditions for many years. Consequently, microbial mat communities are ideal natural laboratories and represent excellent model systems for studying microbial community structure and function, microbial dynamics and interactions, and discovery of new microorganisms with novel metabolic pathways potentially useful in future industrial and/or medical applications. Due to their relative simplicity and organization, microbial mat communities are often excellent testing grounds for new technologies in microbiology including micro-sensor analysis, stable isotope methodology and modern genomics. Integrative studies of microbial mat communities that combine modern biogeochemical and molecular biological methods with traditional microbiology, macro-ecological approaches, and community network modeling will provide new and detailed insights regarding the systems biology of microbial mats and the complex interplay among individual populations and their physicochemical environment. These processes ultimately control the biogeochemical cycling of energy and/or nutrients in microbial systems. Similarities in microbial community function across different types of communities from highly disparate environments may provide a deeper basis for understanding microbial community dynamics and the ecological role of specific microbial populations. Approaches and concepts developed in highly-constrained, relatively stable natural communities may also provide insights useful for studying and understanding more complex microbial communities.

Halophilic Microorganisms And Their Environments

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Author: Aharon Oren
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306480530
Size: 12.69 MB
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Halophilic Microorganisms And Their Environments by Aharon Oren


Original Title: Halophilic Microorganisms And Their Environments

"This water" he told me, "runs out to the eastern region, and flows into the Arabah; and when it comes into the sea, into the sea of foul waters [i. e. , the Dead Sea], the water will become wholesome. Every living creature that swarms will be able to live wherever this stream goes; the fish will be very abundant once these waters have reached there. It will be wholesome, and everything will live wherever this stream goes. Fishermen shall stand beside it all the way from En-gedi to En-eglaim; it shall be a place for drying nets; and the fish will be of various kinds [and] most plentiful, like the fish of the Great Sea. " Ezekiel’s prophecy (Ezekiel 47: 8-10) for revival and purification of the Dead Sea waters This new book on "Halophilic Microorganisms and their Environments" is the fifth volume in the COLE series (Cellular Origin and Life in Extreme Habitats (see: http://www. wkap. nl/prod/s/COLE). In the previous books we covered aspects of enigmatic microorganisms, microbial diversity, astrobiology, and symbiosis, so this book on halophilic microbes adds a fitting link to the rest of series' books. Since ancient times hypersaline habitats have been considered extreme environments, and some were thought not to sustain life at all. Yet, every organism requires salt for its existence. Salty places have been compared to an environment of extinction (e. g. , the Dead Sea).

Hydrothermal Processes And Mineral Systems

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Author: Franco Pirajno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140208613X
Size: 16.85 MB
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Hydrothermal Processes And Mineral Systems by Franco Pirajno


Original Title: Hydrothermal Processes And Mineral Systems

Hydrothermal processes on Earth have played an important role in the evolution of our planet. These processes link the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere in continuously evolving dynamic systems. Terrestrial hydrothermal processes have been active since water condensed to form the hydrosphere, most probably from about 4.4 Ga. The circulation of hot aqueous solution (hydrothermal systems) at, and below, the Earth’s surface is ultimately driven by magmatic heat. This book presents an in-depth review of hydrothermal proceses and systems that form beneath the oceans and in intracontinental rifts, continental margins and magmatic arcs. The interaction of hydrothermal fluids with rockwalls, the hydrophere and the biophere, together with changes in their composition through time and space, contribute to the formation of a wide range of mineral deposit types and associated wallrock alteration. On Earth, sites of hydrothermal activity support varied ecosystems based on a range of chemotrophic microorganisms both at surface and in the subsurface. This book also provides an overview of hydrothermal systems associated with meteorite impacts and explores the possibility that hydrothermal processes operate on other terrestrial planets, such as Mars, or satellites of the outer planets such as Titan and Europa. Possible analogues of extraterrestrial putative hydrothermal processes pose the intriguing question of whether primitive life, as we know it, may exist or existed in these planetary bodies. Audience: This volume will be of interest to scientists and researchers in geosciences and life sciences departments, as well as to professionals and scientists involved in mining and mineral exploration.

Links Between Geological Processes Microbial Activities Evolution Of Life

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Author: Yildirim Dilek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402083068
Size: 70.90 MB
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Links Between Geological Processes Microbial Activities Evolution Of Life by Yildirim Dilek


Original Title: Links Between Geological Processes Microbial Activities Evolution Of Life

Microbial systems in extreme environments and in the deep biosphere may be analogous to potential life on other planetary bodies and hence may be used to investigate the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. This book examines the mode and nature of links between geological processes and microbial activities and their significance for the origin and evolution of life on the Earth and possibly on other planets. This is a truly interdisciplinary science with societal relevance.

Microbial Evolution Under Extreme Conditions

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Author: Corien Bakermans
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110340712
Size: 52.81 MB
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Microbial Evolution Under Extreme Conditions by Corien Bakermans


Original Title: Microbial Evolution Under Extreme Conditions

This book explores the current state of knowledge about microbial evolution under extreme conditions addressing questions from the perspectives of different extreme environments, organisms, and evolutionary processes: What is known about the processes of evolution that produce adaptations to extreme conditions? Can this knowledge be applied to other systems? What requires future research?

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