Das F Hren Eines Kraftfahrzeugs Unter Doppelt Tigkeitsbelastung Alternsbedingte Leistungsunterschiede In Gefahrensituationen

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Author: Gisa Aschersleben
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 3640690613
Size: 80.31 MB
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Das F Hren Eines Kraftfahrzeugs Unter Doppelt Tigkeitsbelastung Alternsbedingte Leistungsunterschiede In Gefahrensituationen by Gisa Aschersleben


Original Title: Das F Hren Eines Kraftfahrzeugs Unter Doppelt Tigkeitsbelastung Alternsbedingte Leistungsunterschiede In Gefahrensituationen

Doppeltätigkeiten stellen insbesondere für ältere Kraftfahrer deutliche Belastungen dar. So muss beispielsweise ein Fahrzeugführer während des Fahrens zusätzliche Informationen (z. B. des Navigationssystems) aufnehmen und gegebenenfalls auf sie reagieren. Bei ungünstigen Verkehrsbedingungen ist dann mit Einbußen der Reaktionsfähigkeit auf kritische Verkehrssituationen zu rechnen. Die Belastungen hängen auch davon ab, ob die Zweitaufgabe zur auszuführenden Reaktion in der Erstaufgabe kompatible oder inkompatible Informationen bereitstellt. Erste Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Wirksamkeit der Kompatibilitätsbeziehung von der Bedeutung der Verkehrssituation und von der Richtung der auszuführenden Reaktion abhängt und nicht allein durch den Präsentationsort der reaktionsrelevanten Information determiniert wird. Aus den Ergebnissen des Projekts werden Empfehlungen für die altersdifferenzierte Gestaltung von Bedienelementen in Kraftfahrzeugen sowie Vorschläge für Trainingskonzepte für ältere Kraftfahrer entwickelt werden

Cognitive Contributions To The Perception Of Spatial And Temporal Events

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Author: Gisa Aschersleben
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444503250
Size: 51.11 MB
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Cognitive Contributions To The Perception Of Spatial And Temporal Events by Gisa Aschersleben


Original Title: Cognitive Contributions To The Perception Of Spatial And Temporal Events

The book is concerned with the cognitive contributions to perception, that is, with the influence of attention, intention, or motor processes on performances in spatial and temporal tasks. The chapters deal with fundamental perceptual processes resulting from the simple localization of an object in space or from the temporal determination of an event within a series of events. Chapters are based on presentations given at the Symposium on the Cognitive Contributions to the Perception of Spatial and Temporal Events (September 7-9, 1998, Ohlstadt, Germany). Following each chapter are commentary pieces from other researchers in the field. At the meeting, contributors were encouraged to discuss their theoretical positions along with presenting empirical results and the book's commentary sections help to preserve the spirit and controversies of the symposium. The general topic of the book is split into three parts. Two sections are devoted to the perception of unimodal spatial and temporal events; and are accompanied by a third part on spatio-temporal processes in the domain of intermodal integration. The themes of the book are highly topical. There is a growing interest in studies both with healthy persons and with patients that focus on localization errors and dissociations in localizations resulting from different tasks. These errors lead to new concepts of how visual space is represented. Such deviations are not only observed in the spatial domain but in the temporal domain as well. Typical examples are errors in duration judgments or synchronization errors in tapping tasks. In addition, several studies indicate the influence of attention on both the timing and on the localization of dynamic events. Another intriguing question originates from well-known interactions between intermodal events, namely, whether these events are based on a single representation or whether different representations interact.

Age Differentiated Work Systems

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Author: Christopher Marc Schlick
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642350577
Size: 80.50 MB
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Age Differentiated Work Systems by Christopher Marc Schlick


Original Title: Age Differentiated Work Systems

The disproportionate aging of the population of working age in many nations around the world is a unique occurrence in the history of humankind. In the light of demographic change, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and use the potential of older employees. This edited volume Age-differentiated Work Systems provides a final report on a six-year priority program funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and presents selected research findings of 17 interdisciplinary project teams. The idea is that it will serve both as a reference book and overview of the current state of research in ergonomics, occupational psychology and related disciplines. It provides new models, methods, and procedures for analyzing and designing age-differentiated work systems with the aim of supporting subject matter experts from different areas in their decisions on labor and employment policies. Therefore over 40 laboratory experiments involving 2,000 participants and 50 field studies involving over 25,000 employees were conducted. Further objectives of the edited volume were to provide a pluridisciplinary compilation of the extensive information acquired over the six-year program period, to illustrate the range of the research field, and to convey an integrated understanding of age-differentiated work systems to readers.

Psychophysics Beyond Sensation

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Author: Christian Kaernbach
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135633665
Size: 36.64 MB
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Psychophysics Beyond Sensation by Christian Kaernbach


Original Title: Psychophysics Beyond Sensation

This volume presents a series of studies that expand laws, invariants, and principles of psychophysics beyond its classical domain of sensation. This book's goal is to demonstrate the extent of the domain of psychophysics, ranging from sensory processes, through sensory memory and short-term memory issues, to the interaction between sensation and action. The dynamics and timing of human performance are a further important issue within this extended framework of psychophysics: Given the similarity of the various cortical areas in terms of their neuroanatomical structure, it is an important question whether this similarity is paralleled by a similarity of processes. These issues are addressed by the contributions in the present volume using state-of-the-art research methods in behavioral research, psychophysiology, and mathematical modeling. The book is divided into four sections. Part I presents contributions concerning the classical domain of psychophysical judgment. The next two parts are concerned with elementary and higher-order processes and the concluding section deals with psychophysical models. The sections are introduced by guest editorials contributed by independent authors. These editorials present the authors' personals view on the respective section, providing an integrated account of the various contributions or highlighting their focus of interest among them. While also voicing their own and sometimes different point of view, they contribute to the process of discussion that makes science so exciting. This volume should be of great interest to advanced students in neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, neuropsychology, and related areas who seek to evaluate the range and power of psychological work today. Established scientists in those fields will also appreciate the variety of issues addressed within the same methodological framework and their multiple interconnections and stimulating "cross-talk."

Human Motor Control

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Author: David A. Rosenbaum
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080921228
Size: 73.71 MB
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Human Motor Control by David A. Rosenbaum


Original Title: Human Motor Control

Motor Control is a complex process that involves the brain, muscles, limbs, and often external objects. It underlies motion, balance, stability, coordination, and our interaction with others and technology. This book is a comprehensive introduction to motor control, covering a complex topic in an approachable way encompassing the psychological, physiological, and computational approaches to motor control. Human Motor Control, 2e cuts across all movement related disciplines: physical education, dance, physical therapy, robotics, etc. This second edition incorporates advances to the field, and integrates throughout the book how research harkens back to four critical questions: how do we select our actions of the many actions possible? How are these behaviors sequenced for appropriate order and timing between them? How does perception integrate with motor control? And how are perceptual–motor skills acquired? As before, the book retains its signature organization around activity systems. These activity systems include walking, looking, reaching, drawing and writing, keyboarding, speaking and singing, and smiling. Chapters here exemplify rather than encompass all the behaviors related to them. Hence smiling discusses physical and neural control of the face used in other expressions besides smiling, as well as the origins of emotional expression, and the importance of emotion expression in social interaction. These chapters on activity systems are preceded by chapters on basics, with an introduction and information on the physiological and psychological foundations of movement. The last section discusses integration of movements, individual differences, theories of motor control, and the contributions of both genetics and technology to motor control. Special features of the second edition: Organization by major activity systems New: brain imaging, social action, embodied cognition, advances in genetics and technology Detailed treatment of motor neuroscience Further Readings section added to each chapter * Retains unique organization of first edition: Part 1 on Preliminaries, Part 2 on Activity Systems, Part 3 on Principles and Prospects * Emphasizes exciting advances in the field and promising new directions * Well-illustrated with entertaining figures

Practical Theories And Empirical Practice

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Author: Andrea C. Schalley
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027223947
Size: 59.52 MB
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Practical Theories And Empirical Practice by Andrea C. Schalley


Original Title: Practical Theories And Empirical Practice

There is a perceived tension between empirical and theoretical approaches to the study of language. Many recent works in the discipline emphasise that linguistics is an 'empirical science'. This volume argues for a nuanced view, highlighting that theory and practice necessarily and as a matter of fact complement each other in linguistic research. Its contributions – ranging from experimental studies in psychology via linguistic fieldwork and cross-linguistic comparisons to the application of formal and logical approaches to language – exemplify the mutual relationship between empirical and theoretical work. The volume illustrates how selected topics are addressed by different contributions and methodological stances. Topics include the cognitive grounding of language, social cognition and the construction of meaning in interaction, and, closely related, pragmatics from a typological perspective and beyond. Anyone interested in these topics and more generally in meta-theoretical considerations will find great value in this volume.

Staging Philosophy

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Author: David Krasner
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 0472069500
Size: 58.38 MB
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Staging Philosophy by David Krasner


Original Title: Staging Philosophy

The fifteen original essays in Staging Philosophy make useful connections between the discipline of philosophy and the fields of theater and performance and use these insights to develop new theories about theater. Each of the contributors—leading scholars in the fields of performance and philosophy—breaks new ground, presents new arguments, and offers new theories that will pave the way for future scholarship. Staging Philosophy raises issues of critical importance by providing case studies of various philosophical movements and schools of thought, including aesthetics, analytic philosophy, phenomenology, deconstruction, critical realism, and cognitive science. The essays, which are organized into three sections—history and method, presence, and reception—take up fundamental issues such as spectatorship, empathy, ethics, theater as literature, and the essence of live performance. While some essays challenge assertions made by critics and historians of theater and performance, others analyze the assumptions of manifestos that prescribe how practitioners should go about creating texts and performances. The first book to bridge the disciplines of theater and philosophy, Staging Philosophy will provoke, stimulate, engage, and ultimately bring theater to the foreground of intellectual inquiry while it inspires further philosophical investigation into theater and performance. David Krasner is Associate Professor of Theater Studies, African American Studies, and English at Yale University. His books include A Beautiful Pageant: African American Theatre, Drama, and Performance in the Harlem Renaissance, 1910-1920 and Renaissance, Parody, and Double Consciousness in African American Theatre, 1895-1910. He is co-editor of the series Theater: Theory/Text/Performance. David Z. Saltz is Professor of Theatre Studies and Head of the Department of Theatre and Film Studies at the University of Georgia. He is coeditor of Theater Journal and is the principal investigator of the innovative Virtual Vaudeville project at the University of Georgia.

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