The Chemokine Receptors

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Author: Jeffrey K. Harrison
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1597450200
Size: 77.94 MB
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The Chemokine Receptors by Jeffrey K. Harrison


Original Title: The Chemokine Receptors

This volume, new to The Receptors series, focuses on several areas, including the birth, maturation, and structure of Chemokines; Neutrophil, Dendritic, and Lymphocyte trafficking; and Chemokine Receptors in diseases such as AIDs and lung cancer. In particular the book contains cutting-edge information ranging from basic molecular and cellular mechanisms to physiological and pathological roles of chemokines.

Chemokine Receptors In Cancer

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Author: Amy Fulton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781603272674
Size: 50.41 MB
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Chemokine Receptors In Cancer by Amy Fulton


Original Title: Chemokine Receptors In Cancer

Chemokines are a superfamily of low molecular weight cytokines that were initially described based on their ability to induce the directed migration of leukocytes to sites of inflammation or injury. In humans, there are approximately 45 chemokines that bind to 19 G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to mediating cellular migration, chemokines have now been shown to affect many cellular functions including survival, adhesion, invasion, proliferation, and to regulate circulating chemokine levels. Although chemokine receptors were first described on leukocytes, it is now appreciated that chemokine receptors are also expressed by many other cells including endothelial and epithelial cells. Since the first description of chemokine receptors on malignant cells in 2001, an extensive literature has developed describing the expression and function of chemokine receptors in many malignancies. These studies support the initial hypothesis that malignant cells use chemokine receptors to migrate to distant sites of ligand expression and that expression of certain receptors is associated with a poor prognosis. It has also become apparent that malignancies of different tissues may use a diverse profile of chemokine receptors and that the same receptor may mediate metastasis to different sites in tumors of different histological origins. Receptor function may also maintain survival and expansion of the primary tumor.

Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors In Brain Homeostasis

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Author: Flavia Trettel
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288919616X
Size: 64.84 MB
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Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors In Brain Homeostasis by Flavia Trettel


Original Title: Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors In Brain Homeostasis

Virtually involved in all pathologies that present an inflammatory component, it is now evident that, in the central nervous system, chemokines and chemokine receptors possess pleiotropic properties beyond chemotaxis: costitutive brain expression of chemokines and their receptors on endothelial cells, but also on neurons and glia, suggests a role for such molecules in mediating homeostatic cross-talk between cells of the brain perenchyma. Cross-talk between neurons and glia is determinant to the establishment and maintenance of a brain enviroment that ensure normal function, and in particular glial cells are active players that respond to enviromental changes and act for the survival, growth, differentiation and repair of the nervous tissue: in this regard brain endogenous chemokines represent key molecules that play a role in brain development, neurogenesis, neurotransmission and neuroprotection. As important regulators of peripheral immune response, chemokines are molecules of the immune system that play a central role in coordinating communication between the nervous and the immune systems, in the context of infections and brain injury. Indeed, in phatological processes resulting from infections, brain trauma, ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, chemokines represent important neuroinflammatory mediators that drive leucocytes trafficking into the central nervous system, facilitating an immune response by targeting cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. The third edition of the international conference "Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in the Nervous System", hold in Rome in October 2013, represented an exciting platform to promote discussion among researchers in different disciplines to understand the role of chemokines in brain homoestasis. This Frontiers Research Topic arises from this conference, and wants to be an opportunity to further discuss and highlight the importance of brain chemokines as key molecules that, not only grant the interplay between the immune and the nervous systems, but in addition drive modulatory functions on brain homeoastasis orchestrating neurons, microglia, and astrocytes communication.

Chemokine Receptors As Drug Targets

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Author: Martine J. Smit
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527632344
Size: 71.25 MB
Format: PDF
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Chemokine Receptors As Drug Targets by Martine J. Smit


Original Title: Chemokine Receptors As Drug Targets

Chemokines are hormone-like signaling molecules secreted by cells to signal infection and guide the immune response. Following a decade of basic chemokine research, the pharmaceutical industry has now begun to exploit this crucial signaling pathway for the development of innovative drugs against AIDS, cancer, neural and autoimmune diseases. Here is the first reference focusing on these novel drug development opportunities. Opening with a general introduction on chemokine function and chemokine receptor biology, the second part covers the known implications of these signaling molecules in human diseases, such as cancer, neural disorders, and viral infection, including AIDS. The third part systematically surveys current drug development efforts at targeting individual chemokine receptors, as well as other chemokine interaction partners, including up-to-date reports from the pharmaceutical industry.

Chemokines Chemokine Receptors And Disease

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Author: Lisa M. Schwiebert
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9780121533557
Size: 76.63 MB
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Chemokines Chemokine Receptors And Disease by Lisa M. Schwiebert


Original Title: Chemokines Chemokine Receptors And Disease

This volume in the Current Topics in Membranes series discusses the biology of chemokines and their binding partners, chemokine receptors, in normal and disease-related states. Chemokines are small proteins that are important in normal immune responses. Recent research demonstrates a role for these proteins in a variety of diseases such as heart disease, allergy, asthma, and cancer. As a result of the discovery of this link to disease, the topic of chemokines and drugs that block their actions has become an intense are of study. This book presents the topics of chemokines, chemokine receptors, and related pathologies in an integrated manner that provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of these topics. Provides a comprehensive overview of the history, molecular biology, cell biology, pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology of chemokines and their receptors Each chapter discusses "future directions and unanswered questions" of chemokine biology Serves as a road map for future research

Chemokine Receptors And Neuroaids

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Author: Olimpia Meucci
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441907939
Size: 45.91 MB
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Chemokine Receptors And Neuroaids by Olimpia Meucci


Original Title: Chemokine Receptors And Neuroaids

Chemokine Receptors and NeuroAIDS: Beyond the Co-receptor Function and Links to Other Neuropathologies focuses on unresolved or emerging issues concerning the role of chemokine receptors in neuronal injury and HIV neuropathology, including their ability to regulate fundamental neuronal and glial functions and their role in neurovirulence and neurotoxicity. Although the importance of these molecules in the CNS physiology and pathology is now apparent, these issues are still matter of debate, and further research is required to design effective pharmacological agents that specifically target the brain chemokine system without major side effects. To this end, specific topics have been selected and are reviewed by international experts within the basic science/medical community. This book encourages investigation in the most controversial areas and fosters interaction between clinicians and basic scientists. The book also increases awareness about differences in disease progression among different parts of the world as well as selected patient populations, which may also help identifying novel therapeutic strategies.

The Importance Of Inflammatory Chemokine Receptors In The Immune Response To Leishmania Infections

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Author: Joseph James Barbi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 79.63 MB
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The Importance Of Inflammatory Chemokine Receptors In The Immune Response To Leishmania Infections by Joseph James Barbi


Original Title: The Importance Of Inflammatory Chemokine Receptors In The Immune Response To Leishmania Infections

Abstract: Intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania are responsible for a spectrum of human diseases. These range in severity from life-threatening to self resolving, but all pose significant global health concerns. Studies of the host response to leishmania infection have shown that both parasite- and host-factors contribute to leishmaniasis disease outcome. Among the factors of the host immune system employed to control parasite replication and spread are the chemokines. These small molecules interact specifically with g-protein coupled receptor molecules on target cell surfaces and this receptor/ligand interaction can result in numerous cellular functions including migration and activation of immune cells. In these studies I evaluate the relevance of certain chemokine receptors to the disease outcome of Leishmania major infection, and also I attempt to elucidate the mechanisms regulating expression of a crucial chemokine receptor, CXCR3. In the following chapters I report the results of my inquiries into the importance of certain chemokine receptors to the host response during cutaneous leishmaniasis, a comparison of the roles played by the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in distinct manifestations of leishmaniasis, as well as our detailed dissection of the mechanisms regulating this particular chemokine receptor in murine T cells. In summary, we found that functional CXCR3 signaling is uniquely required for murine resistance to Leishmania major by recruiting IFN-gamma producing T cells to the site of infection. CXCR3-signaling was not found to be important in the response to experimental Leishmania donovani infection. Studies of CXCR3 induction by T cells both in vivo and in vitro demonstrate that T cells from L. major-resistant mice strains dramatically up-regulate CXCR3 upon activation or challenge while T cells from an L. major- susceptible strain fail to do so. Also, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells differentially require the IFN-gamma/STAT1 signaling pathway for CXCR3 induction. These studies have improved our understanding of the role played by chemokine receptor-ligand pairs in anti-parasite immune responses. Also, these studies have clarified aspects of CXCR3 regulation relevant for the anti-leishmania response and therapies for CXCR3-mediated immunopathologies.

Insights Into The Role Of Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors During Hiv 1 Pathogenesis

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Author: Zahra Folaśade Lompeti Parker
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 10.45 MB
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Insights Into The Role Of Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors During Hiv 1 Pathogenesis by Zahra Folaśade Lompeti Parker


Original Title: Insights Into The Role Of Chemokines And Chemokine Receptors During Hiv 1 Pathogenesis

Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is often established by one genetic variant, the transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. T/F HIV-1 may have specific phenotypic properties that are selected for during transmission. To date, the most consistent phenotypic property associated with T/F viruses is use of the chemokine receptor CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry. Small molecule CCR5 antagonists, such as Maraviroc (MVC), inhibit HIV-1 entry by functioning as allosteric inhibitors. These molecules bind within the transmembrane helices of CCR5, inducing a conformational change that prevents the HIV-CCR5 interaction. As with most drugs, HIV-1 has developed strategies to overcome this inhibition. Some viruses develop mutations in the envelope (Env) glycoprotein that enable the use of antagonist-bound CCR5. In Chapter Two, we evaluate 87 CCR5-using viruses to address differences between T/F viruses and viruses isolated from chronically infected individuals (chronic controls-CC) in their ability to mediate entry via varying amounts of CCR5 in the presence of MVC. We demonstrate that CC viruses exhibit partial resistance (PR) to MVC more frequently than T/F viruses, suggesting that T/F and CC HIV-1 differentially utilize CCR5 in a manner that may be biologically important in the context of transmission. Following the discovery of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 as cofactors for HIV-1 entry, it was revealed that their cognate chemokine ligands could inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. Multiple cell types have been implicated in secreting chemokines that function to modulate HIV-1 infection. Recently the platelet-derived chemokine PF4 was shown to inhibit HIV-1. However, despite plasma and local concentrations of PF4 being within the range used in these studies, HIV-1 is still able to propagate in vivo. In Chapter Four, we sought to understand the mechanism of action of PF4 and determine it's in vivo relevance. I confirmed and extended previous studies showing that PF4 inhibits infection by HIV-1 and other viruses. However, the inhibitory capacity of PF4 is limited to a defined concentration range, after which inhibition wanes and viral infection is ultimately enhanced at higher chemokine concentrations that are commonly found in vivo. Thus, rather than being a potential anti-viral agent as previously suggested, PF4 may contribute to the hematologic abnormalities commonly seen in HIV-infected individuals by enhancing virus infection in the bone marrow.

Chemokine Receptors And Aids

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Author: Thomas R. O'Brien
Publisher: Informa Health Care
ISBN: 9780824706364
Size: 60.53 MB
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Chemokine Receptors And Aids by Thomas R. O'Brien


Original Title: Chemokine Receptors And Aids

This authoritative reference presents the latest research on the role of chemokines, chemokine receptors, and genetic variability in the susceptibility, prevention, and treatment of HIV-1-exploring new therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of HIV-1 infected patients by blocking chemokine receptor expression. With contributions from seasoned experts in the field, Chemokine Receptors and AIDS details the role of chemokine receptors in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis the identification and role of the CCR5-D32 allele in HIV infection potential novel methods to treat HIV-1 infection by blocking or down-regulating the CCR5 and CXCR4 HIV-1 coreceptors strategies using monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, and ribosymes and more! Offering more than 1200 current references, Chemokine Receptors and AIDS is an essential reference for infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, virologists, immunologists, pharmacologists, medicinal chemists and biochemists, microbiologists, and medical students in these disciplines.

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