Using Eye Movements As An Experimental Probe Of Brain Function

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Author: R. John Leigh
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932323
Size: 35.11 MB
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Using Eye Movements As An Experimental Probe Of Brain Function by R. John Leigh

Original Title: Using Eye Movements As An Experimental Probe Of Brain Function

This volume of Progress in Brain Research is based on the proceedings of a conference, "Using Eye Movements as an Experimental Probe of Brain Function," held at the Charing Cross Hospital Campus of Imperial College London, UK on 5th -6th December, 2007 to honor Professor Jean Büttner-Ennever. With 87 contributions from international experts – both basic scientists and clinicians – the volume provides many examples of how eye movements can be used to address a broad range of research questions. Section 1 focuses on extraocular muscle, highlighting new concepts of proprioceptive control that involve even the cerebral cortex. Section 2 comprises structural, physiological, pharmacological, and computational aspects of brainstem mechanisms, and illustrates implications for disorders as diverse as opsoclonus, and congenital scoliosis with gaze palsy. Section 3 addresses how the cerebellum transforms neural signals into motor commands, and how disease of such mechanisms may lead to ataxia and disorders such as oculopalatal tremor. Section 4 deals with sensory-motor processing of visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and auditory inputs, such as are required for navigation, and gait. Section 5 illustrates how eye movements, used in conjunction with single-unit electrophysiology, functional imaging, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and lesion studies have illuminated cognitive processes, including memory, prediction, and even free will. Section 6 includes 18 papers dealing with disorders ranging from congenital to acquired forms of nystagmus, genetic and degenerative neurological disorders, and treatments for nystagmus and motion sickness. * Clinicians will find important new information on the substrate for spinocerebellar ataxia, late-onset Tay-Sachs disease, Huntington disease, and pulvinar lesions * Organizes multiple articles on such topics as proprioception, short and longer-term memory, and hereditary cerebellar ataxias for a more coherent presentation * Articles on anatomic tracers, functional imaging, and computational neuroscience are illustrated in color

Tinnitus Pathophysiology And Treatment

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Author: Aage R. Moller
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080554464
Size: 31.54 MB
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Tinnitus Pathophysiology And Treatment by Aage R. Moller

Original Title: Tinnitus Pathophysiology And Treatment

Understanding tinnitus and treating patients with tinnitus must involve many disciplines of basic science and clinical practice. The book provides comprehensive coverage of a wide range of topics related to tinnitus including its pathophysiology, etiology and treatment. The chapters are written by researchers and clinicians who are active in the areas of basic science such as neurophysiology and neuroanatomy and in clinical specialties of psychology, psychiatry, audiology and otolaryngology. * Comprehensive coverage of the pathology and cause of tinnitus including genetics * Hyperacusis, phonophobia and other abnormalities in perception of sounds * The role of neural plasticity in tinnitus

Advances In Vasopressin And Oxytocin From Genes To Behaviour To Disease

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Author: Rainer Landgraf
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932477
Size: 63.91 MB
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Advances In Vasopressin And Oxytocin From Genes To Behaviour To Disease by Rainer Landgraf

Original Title: Advances In Vasopressin And Oxytocin From Genes To Behaviour To Disease

Vasopressin and oxytocin are the key hormones of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, and are well-known to be critically involved in antidiuresis, labor, and milk ejection. This book highlights the latest research on vasopressin and oxytocin, covering multiple biological aspects. The capacity of both hormones to regulate various aspects of social behaviours including pair-bonding, aggression, maternal love, and sexual behaviour, is a main focus, as are their interactions with a variety of other neuromodulators and transmitters. Moreover, the book illustrates the recent development of vasopressin and oxytocin agonists/antagonists as potential drugs to treat not only disturbances of body fluid homeostasis, but also mental disorders, including social phobia, autism, anxiety, and depression. The promising combination of basic and clinical research, comprising physiology, neuroendocrinology, behavioral biology, pharmacology, imaging and molecular genetics makes this book an essential addition to both experts and scientists new to the field alike. • Comprehensive review of OXT and AVP physiology and behaviour • Each chapter covers a novel aspect of OXT and AVP research and is written by a leading expert • Review articles are ideal for experts and newcomers to the field alike • Discusses fascinating behavioural effects of oxytocin and vasopressin • Summarizes the recent explosion of neuropeptide research, physiology and behaviour, is in one location

Serotonin Dopamine Interaction

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Author: Giuseppe Di Giovanni
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444532358
Size: 78.15 MB
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Serotonin Dopamine Interaction by Giuseppe Di Giovanni

Original Title: Serotonin Dopamine Interaction

This book provides a unique and timely multidisciplinary synthesis of our current knowledge of the anatomy, pharmacology, physiology and behavioral data of the serotonin (5-HT)-dopamine (DA) interactions. Central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems play a critical role in the regulation of normal and abnormal behaviors. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the dysfunction of the DA and 5-HT neurotransmitter systems contribute to various mental disorders including depression, schizophrenia, drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. This extremely important topic is of wide interest within the scientific community, with relevance not only to specialists but also to general practitioners and students. The book provides a valuable contribution to the debate on new pharmacological approaches for several psychopathological states, with contributions from expert neuroscientists and pharmacologists who comprehensively survey the most significant currently active areas of dopamine/serotonin interactions. * Provides an understanding of the interaction between Serotonin and Dopamine. * Appeals equally to specialists, general practitioners, students and researchers. * Contributes to the debate on new pharmacological approaches to several psychopathological states * Gives a comprehensive anatomical description plus the physiology and pharmacology of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems * Singles out neuropsychiatric and suggests new therapeutic approaches.

Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences On Brain Function

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Author: Juan Y. Chiao
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080952216
Size: 41.89 MB
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Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences On Brain Function by Juan Y. Chiao

Original Title: Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences On Brain Function

This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.

Neurotrauma New Insights Into Pathology And Treatment

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Author: John T. Weber
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548876
Size: 24.43 MB
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Neurotrauma New Insights Into Pathology And Treatment by John T. Weber

Original Title: Neurotrauma New Insights Into Pathology And Treatment

Neurotrauma is the leading cause of death and disability in young adults, and the incidence in older patients is increasing. Neurotrauma is also a field in medicine with one of the highest unmet needs. Concentrated, focused and multidisciplinary efforts are required to combat this important disease. Exciting findings from basic research open opportunities for improving treatment results. This volume presents a unique and comprehensive overview of the latest findings and insights on translational research in neurotrauma. This book should be a must for any TBI or SCI researcher interested in translating their work to the clinic, as well as to clinicians interested in the latest research findings which could provide novel treatment strategies for their patients. • Integrates results from research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, bridging basic science and clinical research • Includes contributions from a worldwide panel of leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of TBI and SCI

Models Of Brain And Mind

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Author: Rahul Banerjee
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080557199
Size: 20.25 MB
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Models Of Brain And Mind by Rahul Banerjee

Original Title: Models Of Brain And Mind

The phenomenon of consciousness has always been a central question for philosophers and scientists. Emerging in the past decade are new approaches to the understanding of consciousness in a scientific light. This book presents a series of essays by leading thinkers giving an account of the current ideas prevalent in the scientific study of consciousness. The value of the book lies in the discussion of this interesting though complex subject from different points of view ranging from physics and computer science to the cognitive sciences. Reviews of controversial ideas related to the philosophy of mind from western and eastern sources including classical Indian first person methodologies provide a breadth of coverage that has seldom been attempted in a book before. Additionally, chapters relating to the new approaches in computational modeling of higher order cognitive function and consciousness are included. The book is of great value for established as well as young researchers from a wide cross-section of interdisciplinary scientific backgrounds, aiming to pursue research in this field, as well as an informed public. * Presents the latest developments in the scientific study of consciousness * Critically reviews different theoretical and philosophical explanations related to the subject * An important book for both students and researchers in designing research projects on consciousness

Essence Of Memory

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Author: Wayne S. Sossin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080932330
Size: 33.64 MB
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Essence Of Memory by Wayne S. Sossin

Original Title: Essence Of Memory

This selection of reviews gives an up-to-date picture of memory research. Great progress has been made in identifying the memory trace at the molecular and cellular level and individual reviews address the major mechanisms by which changes in synaptic strength can persist. Exciting research at the systems level is also reviewed including the growing importance of changes in inhibitory interneurons and how they play a role in memory formation. Finally, reviews present cognitive and neurobiological models of human memory that explain, characterize and organize the act of memory within a coherent framework. * Provides an unique overview that covers all perspectives and methodological approaches to memory * Broad coverage of memory research from molecular to human studies in one source * Up-to-date reviews give the latest important ideas on memory formation

Stress Hormones And Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

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Author: E. Ronald de Kloet
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080556475
Size: 46.77 MB
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Stress Hormones And Post Traumatic Stress Disorder by E. Ronald de Kloet

Original Title: Stress Hormones And Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) arises from the experience of severe stressors and trauma. The disorder is characterized by recurrent recall of intrusive memories to the event, nightmares with insomnia, emotional numbing, hyperarousal, which are all long-lasting and relatively resistant to therapy. The focus of this book is on the question of how stress hormones are involved in PTSD. Recent evidence suggests that a dysregulation in stress hormones promotes the precipitation of PTSD and that correction of these hormones may ameliorate the disorder. This book combines state-of-the-art basic research on stress hormones from gene to behaviour with clinical research demonstrating the progress in understanding via imaging techniques, genetics, vulnerable phenotypes and co-morbidity with other disorders and physical illness.

Computational Neuroscience Theoretical Insights Into Brain Function

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Author: Paul Cisek
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080555027
Size: 43.32 MB
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Computational Neuroscience Theoretical Insights Into Brain Function by Paul Cisek

Original Title: Computational Neuroscience Theoretical Insights Into Brain Function

Computational neuroscience is a relatively new but rapidly expanding area of research which is becoming increasingly influential in shaping the way scientists think about the brain. Computational approaches have been applied at all levels of analysis, from detailed models of single-channel function, transmembrane currents, single-cell electrical activity, and neural signaling to broad theories of sensory perception, memory, and cognition. This book provides a snapshot of this exciting new field by bringing together chapters on a diversity of topics from some of its most important contributors. This includes chapters on neural coding in single cells, in small networks, and across the entire cerebral cortex, visual processing from the retina to object recognition, neural processing of auditory, vestibular, and electromagnetic stimuli, pattern generation, voluntary movement and posture, motor learning, decision-making and cognition, and algorithms for pattern recognition. Each chapter provides a bridge between a body of data on neural function and a mathematical approach used to interpret and explain that data. These contributions demonstrate how computational approaches have become an essential tool which is integral in many aspects of brain science, from the interpretation of data to the design of new experiments, and to the growth of our understanding of neural function. • Includes contributions by some of the most influential people in the field of computational neuroscience • Demonstrates how computational approaches are being used today to interpret experimental data • Covers a wide range of topics from single neurons, to neural systems, to abstract models of learning

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