Fossil Hydrocarbons

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Author: Norbert Berkowitz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080531885
Size: 23.10 MB
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Fossil Hydrocarbons by Norbert Berkowitz


Original Title: Fossil Hydrocarbons

Fossil hydrocarbons form a continuous series whose"heavy"members--heavy oils, bitumens, oil shale kerogens, and coal--are important sources of conventional lighter fuels. These hydrocarbons are much more abundant and easier to extract than natural gas and oil. This book discusses the origins and compositions of fossil hydrocarbons and shows how the"heavies"can be chemically transformed into environmentally clean gas, liquid transportation fuels, and an almost unlimited range of petrochemicals. Dr. Berkowitz explodes the entrenched dichotomy between"petroleum hydrocarbons"and coal that has shaped popular perceptions of energy, showing that it is feasible to develop new technologies that capitalize on the availability of"synthetic"natural gas and light oils. Fossil Hydrocarbons: Chemistry and Technology is a comprehensive treatment of fossil hydrocarbons, covering the source materials, biosources, metamorphic histories, geochemistry, classification, and molecular structure. It discusses the use of fossil hydrocarbons as a viable energy source in our future, detailing the preparation, processing and conversion technologies, as well as discussing the environmental issues that arise from production, processing, and use of various fossil hydrocarbons. Approaches various fossil hydrocarbons as chemically related entities, thus dispelling the unwarranted distinctions between crude oils and coal Explains how heavy fossil hydrocarbons can be processed by much the same methods as crude oils for good economic and environmental purpose Illustrates how bitumens, oil shales, and coals are convertible into synthetic natural gas and oils Shows a path for reasonable energy self-sufficiency, through conversion of heavy hydrocarbons into synthetic natural gas and oils Augments each chapter with end-of-chapter notes and a detailed bibliography Provides more than 200 useful tables, schematics, and figures

Solid Fuels And Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids Thermal Characterization And Analysis

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Author: Rafael Kandiyoti
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080463605
Size: 43.23 MB
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Solid Fuels And Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids Thermal Characterization And Analysis by Rafael Kandiyoti


Original Title: Solid Fuels And Heavy Hydrocarbon Liquids Thermal Characterization And Analysis

The first strand involves a critical overview of the design of experimental methods used for examining the thermal behaviour of solid fuels [pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification], while the second will emphasise chemical structures and molecular mass distributions of coal derived tars, extracts and pitches, petroleum-derived asphaltenes, and biomass derived heavy hydrocarbon liquids. Two major, interdependent strands in the study of fossil and renewable fuel utilisation are focused on within this text: (i) Thermal characterisation of solid fuels including various ranks of coals, biomass and waste, and, (ii) The analytical characterisation of heavy hydrocarbon liquids, covering coal, petroleum and biomass derived heavy fractions. Two major, interdependent strands in the study of fossil and renewable fuel utilisation are focused on within this text: (i) Thermal characterisation of solid fuels including various ranks of coals, biomass and waste, and, (ii) The analytical characterisation of heavy hydrocarbon liquids, covering coal, petroleum and biomass derived heavy fractions.

Geochemistry Of Fossil Fuels

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Author: Alain-Yves Huc
Publisher: Editions TECHNIP
ISBN: 9782710809906
Size: 58.58 MB
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Geochemistry Of Fossil Fuels by Alain-Yves Huc


Original Title: Geochemistry Of Fossil Fuels

Understanding the origin and fate of hydrocarbons in the subsurface was the major endeavor of organic geochemists during the second half of the twentieth century. They succeeded to the point where the deciphered interplaying of elements and processes paved the way for the revolutionary concept of the petroleum system, a unifying paradigm that plays an important role in decision making associated with oil and gas exploration. The chemistry and physics involved have been addressed in a quantitative way and integrated into the other aspects of petroleum geology, giving rise to the development of numerical basin modeling. This book has been designed to offer an overview of different aspects of the geochemistry of fossil fuels, in particular the functioning of a petroleum system. In this respect, it can be viewed as a foundation for approaching basin modeling. This book will be of interest to a large audience including specialists in the field, nonspecialist professionals, and undergraduate and graduate students.

Activation And Catalytic Reactions Of Saturated Hydrocarbons In The Presence Of Metal Complexes

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Author: A.E. Shilov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402004209
Size: 53.79 MB
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Activation And Catalytic Reactions Of Saturated Hydrocarbons In The Presence Of Metal Complexes by A.E. Shilov


Original Title: Activation And Catalytic Reactions Of Saturated Hydrocarbons In The Presence Of Metal Complexes

hemistry is the science about breaking and forming of bonds between atoms. One of the most important processes for organic chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, as well as C–C in various compounds, and primarily, in hydrocarbons. Among hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane etc. ), are especially attractive as substrates for chemical transformations. This is because, on the one hand, alkanes are the main constituents of oil and natural gas, and consequently are the principal feedstocks for chemical industry. On the other hand, these substances are known to be the less reactive organic compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons may be called the “noble gases of organic chemistry” and, if so, the first representative of their family – methane – may be compared with extremely inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel between noble gases and alkanes is not fully accurate. Indeed the transformations of alkanes, including methane, have been known for a long time. These reactions involve the interaction with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the main source of energy!), as well as some mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. However, all these transformations occur at elevated temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and are usually characterized by a lack of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water during burning is an extremely valuable process – but not from a chemist viewpoint.

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