Original Title: Lecture Notes On The Mathematical Theory Of Generalized Boltzmann ModelsThis book is based on the idea that Boltzmann-like modelling methods can be developed to design, with special attention to applied sciences, kinetic-type models which are called generalized kinetic models. In particular, these models appear in evolution equations for the statistical distribution over the physical state of each individual of a large population. The evolution is determined both by interactions among individuals and by external actions. Considering that generalized kinetic models can play an important role in dealing with several interesting systems in applied sciences, the book provides a unified presentation of this topic with direct reference to modelling, mathematical statement of problems, qualitative and computational analysis, and applications. Models reported and proposed in the book refer to several fields of natural, applied and technological sciences. In particular, the following classes of models are discussed: population dynamics and socio-economic behaviours, models of aggregation and fragmentation phenomena, models of biology and immunology, traffic flow models, models of mixtures and particles undergoing classic and dissipative interactions.