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Author: J. Storm-Mathisen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080532578
Size: 10.41 MB
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Glutamate by J. Storm-Mathisen

Original Title: Glutamate

The volume presents a comprehensive and up-to-date treatise of the glutamatergic synapse and its environment. Particular emphasis is on the localizations of the molecular constituents of the synaptic machinery. Immunogold and other high-resolution methods are used extensively. Each chapter presents new data that have not previously been reviewed. The material presented forms the basis for work directed to understanding the functional properties of excitatory synapses in greater depth, to discover mechanisms of neurological and psychiatric disorders and novel methods for treatment. Chapter 1 deals with the transmitter molecule itself, mechanisms of release and pathways for glutamate synthesis. The anatomy of glutamatergic nerve projection pathways in different brain regions is dealt with. In Chapter 2, focus is on aspartate, the enigmatic congener of glutamate, and its possible role in excitatory neurotransmission. Chapters 3 through 6 deal with glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents an in situ hybridization atlas of the different classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The localizations of these receptors at the regional and synaptic level are presented in Chapter 5. The ways in which the receptors are brought to the synapse and held in position are the subject of Chapter 6. Chapter 7 deals with the enzymes responsible for formation and catabolism of glutamate. In Chapter 8, the regulation of extracellular glutamate levels by glutamate transporters is discussed. The final two chapters of the volume focus on two "model synapses" that, due to special features, lend themselves particularly well to demonstrating properties of glutamatergic synapses. The hair cell-to-afferent nerve terminal synapses in the inner ear (Chapter 9), with their supporting cells, share essential properties with glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system. The salient features of the latter are illustrated by the synapses of the giant reticulo-spinal axons of the lamprey, used to unravel molecular mechanisms of the cycling of synaptic vesicles (Chapter 10).

Direct And Allosteric Control Of Glutamate Receptors

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Author: Michael G. Palfreyman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849383076
Size: 39.75 MB
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Direct And Allosteric Control Of Glutamate Receptors by Michael G. Palfreyman

Original Title: Direct And Allosteric Control Of Glutamate Receptors

Direct and Allosteric Control of Glutamate Receptors describes in detail recent research that has demonstrated that glutamate receptors are subject to numerous modulatory controls. Significant new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of the nervous system have been obtained by these discoveries. The sites on the receptor proteins where modulation occurs have provided a platform of opportunities for medicinal chemists to design new therapeutic modalities. These new drugs will be of major significance in treating diseases (such as stroke, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, Parkinson's, Huntington's, neurotrauma, schizophrenia, pain, and anxiety) associated with abnormal excitatory amino acid neurotransmission and function.

Glutamate Related Biomarkers In Drug Development For Disorders Of The Nervous System

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Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309212243
Size: 51.99 MB
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Glutamate Related Biomarkers In Drug Development For Disorders Of The Nervous System by Institute of Medicine

Original Title: Glutamate Related Biomarkers In Drug Development For Disorders Of The Nervous System

Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.

Glutamate And Addiction

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Author: Barbara H. Herman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592593062
Size: 78.53 MB
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Glutamate And Addiction by Barbara H. Herman

Original Title: Glutamate And Addiction

In Glutamate and Addiction, world-renowned scientific experts critically review all of the evidence for the role of glutamatergic systems in opiate, stimulant, and alcohol addiction. Using a variety of pharmacological, biochemical, genetic, and brain imaging techniques, these investigators show precisely how glutamate affects such addictions and how modifying certain elements of the glutamatergic system appear to alleviate particular components of addiction. Their survey takes in both clinical approaches using medications that influence glutamate and cutting-edge preclinical approaches that manipulate specific subtypes of glutamate receptors or specific substrates of the "glutamate cascade" to determine their roles in various addictive states.

Glutamate And Gaba Receptors And Transporters

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Author: Jan Egebjerg
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780748408818
Size: 72.11 MB
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Glutamate And Gaba Receptors And Transporters by Jan Egebjerg

Original Title: Glutamate And Gaba Receptors And Transporters

The ubiquitous presence of glutamate and GABA receptors in the nervous system makes these receptor systems pivotal to our understanding of neurotransmission. Cloning of the molecular components of these receptor systems has provided insights to the selectivity of many drugs and detailed characterisation at the molecular level is emerging. Moreover, continuous development of novel and selective drugs has revealed detailed information on the mechanism of receptor activation and regulation. However, the rapid development of different aspects of glutamate and GABA receptor research makes it increasingly difficult to establish a general view of the field. Studies of the receptors are a multi-disciplinary task employing many specialised techniques. This book conveys recent discoveries in a framework of the basic concepts in the field of glutamate and GABA receptor research. Glutamate and GABA Receptors and Transporters: Structure, Function and Pharmacology is suitable for postgraduate students studying ligand gated channels but also beneficial for industrial and academic research scientists in both the glutamate and GABA field. Universities offering programs in neuroscience, molecular pharmacology or medicinal chemistry will find this a valuable reference.

Glutamate Receptors In Peripheral Tissue

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Author: Santokh Gill
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 030648644X
Size: 20.10 MB
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Glutamate Receptors In Peripheral Tissue by Santokh Gill

Original Title: Glutamate Receptors In Peripheral Tissue

Glutamate receptors (GluRs) in the central nervous system have been the subject of intense investigations for several decades, providing new avenues for the understanding of excitatory neurotransmission, excitotoxicity, mechanisms of injury, and therapeutics for several acute neurological conditions, such as brain trauma, and for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders including addictions, Alzheimer disease, etc. Evidences of GluRs beyond the central nervous system were first reported in the early 1990s. When the idea of this book was conceived, the knowledge, specificity, and functional significance of GluRs in peripheral tissues was still in its embryonic stage. From our perspective, the idea of GluRs in peripheral tissues arose from our research on seafood toxins (see Chapter 1), and has now been reinforced by the results of other scientists working in similar areas. In this book, we have invited some of the leading authorities in the field to summarize their findings and to provide a framework for further investigations. The book is divided into three sections— Part I is on general concepts and concentrates on the distribution and cell-specific localiza tion of glutamate receptors, their transporters, and the pharmacology in peripheral tissues and organs. Part II emphasizes the presence and implications of these receptors in specific target tissues, organs, and systems, including liver, lungs, endocrine tissues, bone, immune system, etc. Part III focuses on glutamate receptors in plants to illustrate their presence beyond the animal kingdom.

The Glutamate Receptors

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Author: Robert W. Gereau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597450553
Size: 53.67 MB
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The Glutamate Receptors by Robert W. Gereau

Original Title: The Glutamate Receptors

This insightful and comprehensive book covers nearly every aspect of glutamate receptor structure and function for the working researcher and student. It condenses two previous landmark volumes into one easily accessible volume, and covers the extraordinary research and significant developments in the decade since the previous books were published. This includes the central role glutamate receptors play in neurotransmission.

Dopamine And Glutamate In Psychiatric Disorders

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Author: Werner Schmidt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592598528
Size: 13.37 MB
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Dopamine And Glutamate In Psychiatric Disorders by Werner Schmidt

Original Title: Dopamine And Glutamate In Psychiatric Disorders

An illuminating summary of our current understanding of the interactive role of dopamine and glutamate in psychiatric diseases and the therapeutic strategies and possibilities for future treatment. Among the new ideas presented are hypotheses on the role of dopamine and glutamate in aggression, the glutamate system in anxiety disorders, glutamate and neurodegeneration, and on the origin and progression of Parkinson's disease. Additional chapters offer novel insights into a variety of psychiatric diseases, including ADHD, stress, aggression, addiction, schizophrenia, depression, social phobias, dementias, bulimia, and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Each chapter summarizes the prevalence and symptoms of the disease and explains the involvement of dopamine and/or glutamate systems using the newer molecular approaches such as transgenic knockout or knockin mice and recent brain imaging techniques.

Glutamate Cell Death And Memory

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Author: Philippe Ascher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642845266
Size: 24.66 MB
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Glutamate Cell Death And Memory by Philippe Ascher

Original Title: Glutamate Cell Death And Memory

In the past few years, the Fondation IPSEN has been increasing its activity in the neurosciences, especially by supporting researchers working on Alzheimer's disease. This interest in the subject is demonstrated by a prize and a fellowship, which have been awarded each year since 1985, a monthly newsletter, and a series of Colloques Medecine et Recherche and their proceedings which are distributed world-wide. Since 1990, our effort in the field of neuroscience has been considerably enhanced. A new series of Colloques Medecine et Recherche has been devoted to this topic. Like the meetings on Alzheimer's disease, this series will deal with the most current research. Glutamate -the subject we chose for the first meeting of this series - is an excellent example since it has a major role in many physiological or pathological situations. This book contains the proceedings of the meeting which was held in Paris on September 24, 1990. As for the proceedings of the meeting on Alzheimer's disease - published in the series Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer's disease -these meetings will be reported in a new series, distributed at an international level, Research and Perspectives in Neurosciences. The second meeting on neurosciences is scheduled for September 23, 1991, and will be held in Paris. It will be dedicated to Gene transfer and therapy in the nervous system (Organizing Committee: F. Gage, La Jolla; Y. Christen, Paris).

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