Nanopapers

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Author: Wenyi Huang
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323480209
Size: 10.49 MB
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Nanopapers by Wenyi Huang


Original Title: Nanopapers

Nanopapers: From Nanochemistry and Nanomanufacturing to Advanced Applications gives a comprehensive overview of the emerging technology of nanopapers. Exploring the latest developments on nanopapers in nanomaterials chemistry and nanomanufacturing technologies, this book outlines the unique properties of nanopapers and their advanced applications. Nanopapers are thin sheets or films made of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanoclays, cellulose nanofibrils, and graphene nanoplatelets. Noticeably, nanopapers allow highly concentrated nanoparticles to be tightly packed in a thin film to reach unique properties such as very high electrical and thermal conductivities, very low diffusivity, and strong corrosion resistance that are shared by conventional polymer nanocomposites. This book presents a concise introduction to nanopapers, covering concepts, terminology and applications. It outlines both current applications and future possibilities, and will be of great use to nanochemistry and nanomanufacturing researchers and engineers who want to learn more about how nanopapers can be applied. Outlines the main uses of nanopapers, showing readers how this emerging technology should best be applied Shows how the unique properties of nanopapers make them adaptable for use in a wide range of applications Explores methods for the nanomanufacture of nanopapers

Between Technology And Science

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Author: Martin Meyer
Publisher: Universal-Publishers
ISBN: 9781581122534
Size: 57.85 MB
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Between Technology And Science by Martin Meyer


Original Title: Between Technology And Science

This dissertation addresses emerging developer communities in a new field of science and technology as well as methods to capture exchange processes between them. It contributes to the discussion about a new mode of knowledge production and a changing division of labour between public research, industry, and government by investigating 'nanotechnology' - an emerging area between science and technology. To explore exchange processes in this field, the study applies various methods. In particular, it uses patent citation analysis. The methodological contribution is a new interpretation of this indicator, which sees patent citations as information flows that point to reciprocal exchange processes and potential overlaps between science and technology. This is in contrast to the received interpretation, which suffers from the application of a framework that was developed in the context of scholarly citation and does not fully appreciate that a patent citation is established by the patent examiner - a party external to the inventive process. Various formats of patent citation analysis describe 'nanotechnology' as a set of instrument-driven scientific fields on their way towards science-related technologies. Even though nanotechnology patents contain more patent citations to the scientific literature than other technical fields, the science and technology systems are relatively autonomous. What links them in the case of nano-science and technology is a common interest in improving techniques of nano-scale measurement and manipulation. Another finding is that both countries and firms exhibit relatively strong path-dependencies. While nanotechnology comprises a key set of technological areas - instrumentation, electronics, and pharmaceuticals/chemicals - nano-scale activities vary considerably from country to country. Also knowledge-building activities of firms follow a strong technological path-dependency. As a result, 'social capital' seems to be confined to chiefly technological or scientific trajectories. Hence, 'social capital' appears not to be very useful in explaining how knowledge is accumulated and integrated at the nano-scale. Given the central role of instrumentation and the mediated nature of exchange between science and technology at the nano- scale, public policies should be directed towards supporting education and infrastructure in the area rather than more 'direct' transfer mechanisms.

Characterization And Analysis Of Graphite Nanocomposites For Thermal Management Of Electronics

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Author: Nayandeep Kumar Mahanta
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 47.85 MB
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Characterization And Analysis Of Graphite Nanocomposites For Thermal Management Of Electronics by Nayandeep Kumar Mahanta


Original Title: Characterization And Analysis Of Graphite Nanocomposites For Thermal Management Of Electronics

The extremely high thermal conductivity seen in carbon nanotubes/nanofibers makes them a viable alternative in devising thermal management solutions for modern microelectronic chips. Efficient thermal characterization holds the key to understanding the mechanisms of heat conduction in the nanocomposites and hence their continued development. The present work deals with novel nanostructured bulk materials, called "nanopapers", which are mats of carbon nanofibers. A steady-state method based on the standard heat flow meter apparatus was developed for measuring the in-plane thermal conductivity of the nanopapers, whereas the Dynamic Plane Source technique was adopted for quantifying the heat conduction through the planes. The characterization results were consistent with the expectations of a highly anisotropic thermal transport in the nanopapers. Additionally, experimental results for the nanopapers were used as the basis for estimating the intrinsic thermal conductivity of individual nanofibers using analytical models available in the literature.

Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites

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Author: Jinsong Leng
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439816837
Size: 75.92 MB
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Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites by Jinsong Leng


Original Title: Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites

The novel properties of multifunctional polymer nanocomposites make them useful for a broad range of applications in fields as diverse as space exploration, bioengineering, car manufacturing, and organic solar cell development, just to name a few. Presenting an overview of polymer nanocomposites, how they compare with traditional composites, and their increasing commercial importance, Multifunctional Polymer Nanocomposites conveys the significance and various uses of this new technology for a wide audience with different needs and levels of understanding. Exploring definitions, architectures, applications, and fundamental principles of various functions of multifunctional polymeric smart materials—from bulk to nano—this book covers the use of multifunctional polymer nanocomposites in: Carbon nanotubes Electroactive and shape memory polymers Magnetic polymers Biomedical and bioinformation applications Fire-resistance treatments Coating technologies for aeronautical applications Ocean engineering A practical analysis of functional polymers, nanoscience, and technology, this book integrates coverage of fundamentals, research and development, and the resulting diversity of uses for multifunctional polymers and their nanocomposites. Quite possibly the first reference of its kind to explore the progress of polymer nanocomposites in terms of their multifunctionality, it covers both theory and experimental results regarding the relationships between the effective properties of polymer composites and those of polymer matrices and reinforcements. This book is a powerful informational resource that illustrates the importance of polymer nanomaterials, examining their applications in various sectors to promote new, novel research and development in those areas. It will be a welcome addition to the libraries of not only engineering researchers, but senior and graduate students in relevant fields.

Fire Retardant Nanocomposites

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Author: Jinfeng Zhuge
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 12.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Fire Retardant Nanocomposites by Jinfeng Zhuge


Original Title: Fire Retardant Nanocomposites

Compared to conventional materials, polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have a number of attractive properties, including light weight, easiness of installation, potential to lower system-level cost, high overall durability, and less susceptibility to environmental deterioration. However, PMCs are vulnerable to fire such that they degrade, decompose, and sometimes yield toxic gases at high temperature. The degradation and decomposition of composites lead to loss in mass, resulting in loss in mechanical strength. This research aims to improve the structural integrity of the PMCs under fire conditions by designing and optimizing a fire retardant nanopaper coating, and to fundamentally understand the thermal response and post-fire mechanical behavior the PMCs through numerical modeling. Specifically, a novel paper-making process that combined carbon nanofiber, nanoclay, exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet, and ammonium polyphosphate into a self-standing nanopaper was developed. The nanopaper was then coated onto the surface of the PMCs to improve the fire retardant performance of the material. The morphology, thermal stability, flammability, and post-fire flexural modulus of the nanopaper coated-PMCs were characterized. The fire retardant mechanism of the nanopaper coating was studied. Upon successfully improving the structure integrity of the PMCs by the nanopaper coatings, a thermal degradation model that captured the decomposition reaction of the polymer matrix with a second kind boundary condition (constant heat flux) was solved using Finite Element (FE) method. The weak form of the model was constructed by the weighted residual method. The model quantified the thermal and post-fire flexural responses of the composites subject to continuously applied heat fluxes. A temperature dependent post-fire residual modulus was assigned to each element in the FE domain. The bulk residual modulus was computed by assembling the modulus of each element. Based on the FE model, a refined Finite Difference (FD) model was developed to predict the fire response of the PMCs coated with the nanopapers. The FD model adopted the same post-fire mechanical evaluation method. However, unlike the FE model, the flow of the decomposed gas, and permeability and porosity of the composites were taken into account in the refined FD model. The numerical analysis indicated that the thickness and porosity of the composites had a profound impact on the thermal response of the composites. The research funding from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Federal Aviation Administration Center of Excellence for Commercial Space Transportation (FAA COE AST) is acknowledged.

Comprehensive Biomaterials

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Author: Paul Ducheyne
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080552943
Size: 38.61 MB
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Comprehensive Biomaterials by Paul Ducheyne


Original Title: Comprehensive Biomaterials

Comprehensive Biomaterials brings together the myriad facets of biomaterials into one, major series of six edited volumes that would cover the field of biomaterials in a major, extensive fashion: Volume 1: Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials Volume 2: Biologically Inspired and Biomolecular Materials Volume 3: Methods of Analysis Volume 4: Biocompatibility, Surface Engineering, and Delivery Of Drugs, Genes and Other Molecules Volume 5: Tissue and Organ Engineering Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use Experts from around the world in hundreds of related biomaterials areas have contributed to this publication, resulting in a continuum of rich information appropriate for many audiences. The work addresses the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field, their strengths and weaknesses, their future prospects, appropriate analytical methods and testing, device applications and performance, emerging candidate materials as competitors and disruptive technologies, and strategic insights for those entering and operational in diverse biomaterials applications, research and development, regulatory management, and commercial aspects. From the outset, the goal was to review materials in the context of medical devices and tissue properties, biocompatibility and surface analysis, tissue engineering and controlled release. It was also the intent both, to focus on material properties from the perspectives of therapeutic and diagnostic use, and to address questions relevant to state-of-the-art research endeavors. Reviews the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, performance as well as future prospects Presents appropriate analytical methods and testing procedures in addition to potential device applications Provides strategic insights for those working on diverse application areas such as R&D, regulatory management, and commercial development

Processing Optimization And Characterization Of Fire Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

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Author: Jinfeng Zhuge
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 34.43 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Processing Optimization And Characterization Of Fire Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites by Jinfeng Zhuge


Original Title: Processing Optimization And Characterization Of Fire Retardant Polymer Nanocomposites

Fiber reinforced polymeric composites (FRPC) have superior physical and mechanical properties, such as high specific strength, light weight, and good fatigue and corrosion resistance. They have become competitive engineering materials to replace conventional metallic materials in many important sectors of industry such as aircraft, naval constructions, ships, buildings, transportation, electrical and electronics components, and offshore structures. However, since FRPC contain polymer matrix, the polymer composites and their structures are combustible. FRPC will degrade, decompose, and sometimes yield toxic gases at high temperature or subject to fire conditions. The objective of this study is to design and optimize fire retardant nanopaper by utilizing the synergistic effects of different nanoparticles. A paper-making technique that combined carbon nanofiber, nanoclay, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes, graphite nanoplatelet, and ammonium polyphosphate into self-standing nanopaper was developed. The fire retardant nanopaper was further incorporated into the polymer matrix, in conjunction with continuous fiber mats, through resin transfer molding process to improve fire retardant performance of structural composites. The morphology, thermal stability, and flammability of polymer composites coated with hybrid nanopaper were studied. The cone calorimeter test results indicated that the peak heat release rate of the composites coated with a CNF-clay nanopaper was reduced by 60.5%. The compact char material formed on the surface of the residues of the CNF-clay nanopaper was analyzed to understand the fire retardant mechanism of the nanopaper. The financial support from Office of Naval Research is acklowdged.

Materials For Hydrogen Storage

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Author: Michael J. Heben
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 35.17 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Materials For Hydrogen Storage by Michael J. Heben


Original Title: Materials For Hydrogen Storage

The development of Hydrogen storage materials with a high-capacity-per-unit volume and weight is vital to achieving the goal of using hydrogen as a ubiquitous energy source. Fundamental materials issues such as structure, hydrogen transport and stability are central to the development of successful hydrogen storage systems.

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