Structural Biological Materials

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Author: M. Elices
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080541907
Size: 12.45 MB
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Structural Biological Materials by M. Elices

Original Title: Structural Biological Materials

The ongoing process of bio-evolution has produced materials which are perfectly adapted to fulfil a specific functional role. The natural world provides us with a multitude of examples of materials with durability, strength, mechanisms of programmed self-assembly and biodegradability. The materials industry has sought to observe and appreciate the relationship between structure, properties and function of these biological materials. A multidisciplinary approach, building on recent advances at the forefront of physics, chemistry and molecular biology, has been successful in producing many synthetic structures with interesting and useful properties. Structural Biological Materials: Design and Structure-Property Relationships represents an invaluable reference in the field of biological materials science and provides an incisive view into this rapidly developing and increasingly important topic within materials science. This book focuses on the study of three sub-groups of structural biological materials: • Hard tissue engineering, focussing on cortical bone • Soft tissue engineering • Fibrous materials, particularly engineering with silk fibers. The fundamental relationship between structure and properties, and certain aspects of design and engineering, are explored in each of the sub-groups. The importance of these materials, both in their intrinsic properties and specific functions, are illustrated with relevant examples. These depict the successful integration of material properties, architecture and shape, providing a wide range of optimised designs, tailored to specific functions. Edited by Manuel Elices of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain, this book is Volume 4 in the Pergamon Material Series.

Analysis And Design Of Biological Materials And Structures

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Author: Andreas Öchsner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642221300
Size: 67.51 MB
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Analysis And Design Of Biological Materials And Structures by Andreas Öchsner

Original Title: Analysis And Design Of Biological Materials And Structures

This collection of advanced analyses and techniques in biomaterials design includes mechanical studies of biological structures and features 16 known experts who present research on stress and strain analysis, material properties, and fluid and gas mechanics.

Structural Biomaterials

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Author: Julian F. V. Vincent
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691025131
Size: 65.73 MB
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Structural Biomaterials by Julian F. V. Vincent

Original Title: Structural Biomaterials

"This book should go a long way towards filling the communication gap between biology and physics in [the area of biomaterials]. It begins with the basic theory of elasticity and viscoelasticity, describing concepts like stress, strain, compliance, and plasticity in simple mathematical terms. . . . For the non-biologist, these chapters provide a clear account of macromolecular structure and conformation. . . . [Vincent's work] is a delight to read, full of interesting anecdotes and examples from unexpected sources. . . . I can strongly recommend this book, as it shows how biologists could use mechanical properties as well as conventional methods to deduce molecular structure."--Anna Furth, The Times Higher Education Supplement In what is now recognized as a standard introduction to biomaterials, Julian Vincent presents a biologist's analysis of the structural materials of organisms, using molecular biology as a starting point. He explores the chemical structure of both proteins and polysaccharides, illustrating how their composition and bonding determine the mechanical properties of the materials in which they occurincluding pliant composites such as skin, artery, and plant tissue; stiff composites such as insect cuticle and wood; and biological ceramics such as teeth, bone, and eggshell. Here Vincent discusses the possibilities of taking ideas from nature with biomimicry and "intelligent" (or self-designing and sensitive) materials.

Materiomics Multiscale Mechanics Of Biological Materials And Structures

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Author: Markus J. Buehler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709115744
Size: 58.95 MB
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Materiomics Multiscale Mechanics Of Biological Materials And Structures by Markus J. Buehler

Original Title: Materiomics Multiscale Mechanics Of Biological Materials And Structures

Multiscale mechanics of hierarchical materials plays a crucial role in understanding and engineering biological and bioinspired materials and systems. The mechanical science of hierarchical tissues and cells in biological systems has recently emerged as an exciting area of research and provides enormous opportunities for innovative basic research and technological advancement. Such advances could enable us to provide engineered materials and structure with properties that resemble those of biological systems, in particular the ability to self-assemble, to self-repair, to adapt and evolve, and to provide multiple functions that can be controlled through external cues. This book presents material from leading researchers in the field of mechanical sciences of biological materials and structure, with the aim to introduce methods and applications to a wider range of engineers.

Infrared And Raman Spectroscopy Of Biological Materials

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Author: Hans-Ulrich Gremlich
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824704094
Size: 19.97 MB
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Infrared And Raman Spectroscopy Of Biological Materials by Hans-Ulrich Gremlich

Original Title: Infrared And Raman Spectroscopy Of Biological Materials

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Biological Materials facilitates a comprehensive and through understanding of the latest developments in vibrational spectroscopy. It contains explains key breakthroughs in the methodologies and techniques for infrared, near-infrared, and Raman spectroscopy. Topics include qualitative and quantitative analysis, biomedical applications, vibrational studies of enzymatic catalysis, and chemometrics.

Structural And Functional Biological Materials

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Structural And Functional Biological Materials by

Original Title: Structural And Functional Biological Materials

A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 [Mu]m by 10 [Mu]m aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were investigated. It is discovered that the foot of the abalone applies similar mechanics as that of the gecko foot to adhere to surfaces. Approximately 1011 100 nm diameter fibers found at the base of the foot pedal are found to create Van der Waals interactions along with capillary and suction mechanisms to enable attachment. This reusable adhesive is found to exhibit strength of ~0.14 MPa. This represents an evolutionary convergence of design from two independent species (the gecko and the abalone) living in extremely dissimilar environments. The presented work provides a summary of an effort to investigate materials found in nature with the hope of inspiring novel technological advances in design.

Structural Biomaterials

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Author: Julian Vincent
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842786
Size: 80.65 MB
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Structural Biomaterials by Julian Vincent

Original Title: Structural Biomaterials

This is a thoroughly revised, updated, and expanded edition of a classic illustrated introduction to the structural materials in natural organisms and what we can learn from them to improve man-made technology--from nanotechnology to textiles to architecture. Julian Vincent's book has long been recognized as a standard work on the engineering design of biomaterials and is used by undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and professionals studying biology, zoology, engineering, and biologically inspired design. This third edition incorporates new developments in the field, the most important of which have been at the molecular level. All of the illustrations have been redrawn, the references have been updated, and a new chapter on biomimetic design has been added. Vincent emphasizes the mechanical properties of structural biomaterials, their contribution to the lives of organisms, and how these materials differ from man-made ones. He shows how the properties of biomaterials are derived from their chemistry and interactions, and how to measure them. Starting with proteins and polysaccharides, he shows how skin and hair function, how materials self-assemble, and how ceramics such as bone and mother-of-pearl can be so stiff and tough, despite being made in water in benign ambient conditions. Finally, he combines these topics with an analysis of how the design of biomaterials can be adapted in technology, and presents a series of guidelines for designers. An accessible illustrated introduction with minimal technical jargon Suitable for undergraduates and more advanced readers Integrates chemistry, mechanics, and biology Includes descriptions of all biological materials Simple exposition of mechanical analysis of materials

Biological Materials Of Marine Origin

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Author: Hermann Ehrlich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400757301
Size: 43.83 MB
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Biological Materials Of Marine Origin by Hermann Ehrlich

Original Title: Biological Materials Of Marine Origin

This is the second monograph by the author on biological materials of marine origin. The initial book is dedicated to the biological materials of marine invertebrates. This work is a source of modern knowledge on biomineralization, biomimetics and materials science with respect to marine vertebrates. For the first time in scientific literature the author gives the most coherent analysis of the nature, origin and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers isolated from and observed in the broad variety of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and within their unique hierarchically organized structural formations. There is a wealth of new and newly synthesized information, including dozens of previously unpublished images of unique marine creatures including extinct, extant and living taxa and their biocomposite-based structures from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph reviews the most relevant advances in the marine biological materials research field, pointing out several approaches being introduced and explored by distinct modern laboratories.

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